Chris Parsons - Frankfurt

Hi, as you will have gathered my name is Chris Parsons. I am an English scientist working as an expatriate in Frankfurt am Main, Germany since 1991. This is a private homepage on my hobbies, personal interests (music, art, sport and photography) as well as on my academic career. I having been working at Merz Pharmaceuticals for 19 years on the physiological and pathological roles of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the central nervous system, ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, with a particular focus on  NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors and the use of memantine in the treatment of Alzheimer´s disease. Amongst more personal things, this homepage details my work on NMDA and memantine and provides links for more information to the Merz and Memantine home pages.

The picture top right is of my two daughters, Anna-Katharina (left, now  20) and Francesca (middle,  now 18) and me (right with a wine belly, if you had not guessed) in Yosemite in the Summer of 2004.


Personal Interests

I enjoy photography and used to develop my own pictures. My main directions are landscape / abstract / cultural photography, especially when I travel to other countries. I used to use a canon EOS 650 and process my pictures with a Durst M 370 /  Tetenal system which is very easy and gives extremely good results. However, more recently I have turned to digital photography for pragmatic reasons (time). I use a Canon EOS 350D for more ambitious / holiday projects and a Casio Exilim EX S-600 when I´m on business trips.
Photo Start Page
Some Photos of America - this includes - Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Chicago, Florida, Grand Canyon, Joshua Tree, King´s Canyon, Mohave Dessert, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Sequioa, Yosemite, Zion and other National Parks
Some Photos of Australia
Some Photos of Chile
Some Photos of the Dominican Republic
Some Photos of Frankfurt
Some Photos of Greenland - only from the plane
Some Photos of India
Some Photos of Jamaica
Some Photos of Kenya
Some Photos of Kiev
Some Photos of Latvia
Some Photos of Malaysia
Some Photos of Mexico
Some Photos of Namibia
Some Photos of Nepal
Some Photos of Peru
Some Photos of Puerto Rico
Some Photos of Scotland
Some Photos of the Seychelles
Some Photos of  Shanghai
Some Photos of Singapore
Some Photos of Sicily
Some Photos of Thailand
I love art, especially from the impressionist era - e.g. Degas, Cezanne, Toulouse Lautrec, Van Gough, Monet, Renoir, Pissaro and Seurat. My interest in more modern art is more restricted - e.g. Miro, Mogdigliani, Chagal and Kandinsky.
I greatly enjoy music and have a large selection of records and CDs. Of especial importance for me are the following. Classic: Chopin, Satie, Orf, Mozart and Brahms. Rock: Genesis, Pink Floyd, Dire Straits, R.E.M., Toris Amos, the Cranberries, Portishead and Björk. I recently discovered three, for me, new incredible bands, namely Porcupine tree, Riverside and Radiohead - incredible!
I am also learning to play the Guitar, although my standard at present leaves a lot to be desired.
My job allows me to travel a lot. I use this opportunity to take pictures of the beautiful landscapes that our planet has to offer. Thus far I have been to: Australia, Brazil, Canada (3 times), Chile (twice), Dominican Republic, Egypt, Greece, India, Israel, Japan, Malta (twice), Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, Peru, Russia, Singapore, Seychelles, Thailand, U.S.A (24 times), Ukraine, and most European countries on numerous occasions - Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Poland, Scotland, Spain and Switzerland.

I like cooking and eating ;-)), especially exotic dishes such as Indian and Thai.  I also like preparing certain dishes from Italy and Mexico.
I enjoy touring along the Nidda and Main with my mountain bike. Squash and badminton are also sports that I play at least once a week followed by a relaxing sauna. I am a relative beginner in the field of inline skating.
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Publications (selected PDFs) 

Please note that all papers are protected by publishers copyright. I have placed links here so that you can get an idea what I have published in the past (only PDF files listed). Most can be found in the Pubmed Database If you wish to obtain a copy, then please leave a request in my Guestbook


Headley, P.M., Parsons, C.G. and West, D.C. (1984) Comparison of mu, kappa and sigma preferring agonists for effects on spinal nociceptive and other responses in rats. Neuropeptides 5: 249-252. Headley_1984.pdf


Parsons, C.G., Martin, D., Franklin, R.J.M., Wood, J.L. and Headley, P.M. (1986) Do kappa opioids mimic sigma opioids and ketamine as amino acid antagonists? Neuropharmacology 25: 217-220. Parsons_1986.pdf


Headley, P.M., Parsons, C.G. and West, D.C. (1987) The role of N-methyl-aspartate receptors in mediating responses of rat and cat spinal neurones to defined sensory stimuli. J. Physiol. 385: 169-188. Headley_1987.pdf


Parsons, C.G., Gibbens, H., Magnago, T.S.I. and Headley, P.M. (1988) At which `sigma` site are the spinal actions of ketamine mediated? Neuroscience Letters 85: 322-328. Parsons_1988.pdf

Wiklund L., Behzadi, G., Kalen, P., Headley, P.M., Nicolopoulos, L.S., Parsons, C.G. and West, D.C. (1988) Autoradiographic and electrophysiological evidence for excitatory amino acid transmission in the periaqueductal gray projection to nucleus raphe magnus in the rat. Neuroscience Letters 93: 158-163. Wiklund_1988.pdf


Parsons, C.G. and Headley, P.M. (1989) On the selectivity of intravenous mu - and kappa -opioids between nociceptive and non-nociceptive reflexes in the spinalized rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 98: 544-551. Parsons_1989b.pdf

Parsons, C.G. and Headley, P.M. (1989) Spinal antinociceptive actions of mu - and kappa -opioids: the importance of stimulus intensity in determining 'selectivity' between reflexes to different modalities of noxious stimulus. Br. J. Pharmacol. 98: 523-532. Parsons_1989.pdf

Parsons, C.G., West, D.C. and Headley, P.M. (1989) Spinal antinociceptive actions and naloxone reversibility of intravenous mu - and kappa -opioids in spinalized rats: potency mismatch with values reported for spinal administration. Br. J. Pharmacol. 98: 533-543. Parsons_1989c.pdf


Parsons, C.G., Czlonkowski, A., Stein, C. and Herz, A. (1990) Peripheral opioid receptors mediating antinociception in inflammation. Activation by endogenous opioids and the role of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Pain 41: 81-93. Parsons_1990b.pdf

Parsons, C.G. and Herz, A. (1990) Peripheral opioid receptors mediating antinociception in inflammation. Evidence for activation by enkephalin-like opioid peptides following cold water swim stress. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 255: 795-802. Parsons_1990.pdf


Dong, X.W., Parsons, C.G. and Headley, P.M. (1991) Effects of intravenous mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists on sensory responses of convergent neurones in the dorsal horn of spinalized rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 103: 1230-1236. Dong_1991.pdf


Görtelmeyer, R., Pantev, M., Parsons, C.G. and Quack, G. (1993) The treatment of dementia syndrome with Akatinol Memantine a modulator of the glutamatergic system. In: Spektrum der Neurorehabilitation (Von Wild, K.). W. Zuckschwerdt Verlag, München, p. 50-56. Görtelmeyer_1993.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Gruner, R., Rozental, J., Millar, J. and Lodge, D. (1993) Patch clamp studies on the kinetics and selectivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism by memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantan). Neuropharmacology 32: 1337-1350. Parsons_1993.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Zong, X.G. and Lux, H.D. (1993) Whole cell and single channel analysis of the kinetics of glycine-sensitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor desensitization. British Journal of Pharmacology 109 : 213-221. Parsons_1993b.pdf


Herrero, J.F., Headley, P.M. and Parsons, C.G. ( 1994) Memantine selectively depresses NMDA receptor-mediated responses of rat spinal neurones in vivo. Neuroscience Letters 165: 37-40. Herrero_1994.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Gruner, R. and Rozental, J. (1994) Comparative patch clamp studies on the kinetics and selectivity of glutamate receptor antagonism by 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) and 1-(4-amino-phenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylendioxyl-5h-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 52466). Neuropharmacology 33: 589-604. Parsons_1994.pdf

Rammes, G., Parsons, C.G., Muller, W. and Swandulla, D. (1994) Modulation of fast excitatory synaptic transmission by cyclothiazide and GYKI 52466 in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience Letters 175: 21-24. Rammes_1994.pdf


Bresink, I., Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G. and Mutschler, E. (1995) Different binding affinities of NMDA receptor channel blockers in various brain regions - indication of NMDA receptor heterogeneity. Neuropharmacology 34: 533-540. Bresink_1995.pdf

Bresink, I., Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Tiedtke, P. and Mutschler, E. (1995) Chronic treatment with the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine influences the polyamine and glycine binding sites of the NMDA receptor complex in aged rats. Journal of Neural Transmission - Parkinsons Disease and Dementia Section 10: 11-26. Bresink_1995b.pdf

Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Bresink, I. and Quack, G. (1995) Glutamate in CNS disorders - A revived target for drug development. Drug News & Perspectives 8: 261-277. Danysz_1995b.pdf

Danysz, W., Zajaczkowski, W. and Parsons, C.G. (1995) Modulation of learning processes by ionotropic glutamate receptor ligands. Behavioural Pharmacology 6: 455-474. Danysz_1995.pdf

Kornhuber, J., Parsons, C.G., Hartmann, S., Retz, W., Kamolz, S., Thome, J. and Riederer, P. (1995) Orphenadrine is an uncompetitive n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist: binding and patch clamp studies. Journal of Neural Transmission - General Section 102: 237-246. Kornhuber_1995c.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Quack, G., Bresink, I., Baran, L., Przegalinski, E., Kostowski, W., Krzascik, P., Hartmann, S. and Danysz, W. (1995) Comparison of the potency, kinetics and voltage-dependency of a series of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists in vitro with anticonvulsive and motor impairment activity in vivo. Neuropharmacology 34: 1239-1258. Parsons_1995.pdf


Barnes, C.A., Danysz, W. and Parsons, C.G. (1996) Effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on hippocampal long-term potentiation, short-term exploratory modulation and spatial memory in awake, freely moving rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 8: 565-571. Barnes_1996.pdf

Bresink, I., Benke, T.A., Collett, V.J., Seal, A.J., Parsons, C.G., Henley, J.M. and Collingridge, G.L. (1996) Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. British Journal of Pharmacology 119: 195-204. Bresink_1996b.pdf

Bresink, I., Ebert, B., Parsons, C.G. and Mutschler, E. (1996) Zinc changes AMPA receptor properties: Results of binding studies and patch clamp recordings. Neuropharmacology 35: 503-509. Bresink_1996.pdf

Frankiewicz, T., Potier, B., Bashir, Z.I., Collingridge, G.L. and Parsons, C.G. (1996) Effects of memantine and MK-801 on NMDA-induced currents in cultured neurones and on synaptic transmission and LTP in area CA1 of rat hippocampal slices. British Journal of Pharmacology 117: 689-697. Frankiewicz_1996.pdf

Misztal, M., Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (1996) Learning deficits induced by chronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid - protection by MK-801 and memantine. European Journal of Pharmacology 296: 1-8. Misztal_1996b.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Panchenko, V.A., Pinchenko, V.O., Tsyndrenko, A.Y. and Krishtal, O.A. (1996) Comparative patch-clamp studies with freshly dissociated rat hippocampal and striatal neurons on the NMDA receptor antagonistic effects of amantadine and memantine. European Journal of Neuroscience 8: 446-454. Parsons_1996.pdf

Quack, G., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (1996) Therapeutische Implikationen der Beteiligung exzitatorischer Aminosäuren an der Pathogenese dementieller Erkrankungen. In: Aktuelle Perspektiven der Biologischen Psychiatrie (Möller, H.-J., Müller-Spahn, F., and Kurtz, G.). Springer Verlag, Wien, p. 101-109. Quack_1996.pdf

Rammes, G., Swandulla, D., Collingridge, G.L., Hartmann, S. and Parsons, C.G. (1996) Interactions of 2,3-benzodiazepines and cyclothiazide at AMPA receptors: patch clamp recordings in cultured neurones and area CA1 in hippocampal slices. British Journal of Pharmacology 117: 1209-1221. Rammes_1996.pdf


Danysz, W., Frankiewicz, T. and Parsons, C.G. (1997) Receptory Glutaminianiergiczne. In: Receptory: struktura, charakterystyka, funkcja (Nowaka, J. Z. and Zawilskiej, J. B.). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw, p. 161-189. Danysz_1997b.pdf

Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Kornhuber, J., Schmidt, W.J. and Quack, G. (1997) Aminoadamantanes as NMDA receptor antagonists and antiparkinsonian agents - Preclinical studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 21: 455-468. Danysz_1997.pdf

Karcz-Kubicha, M., Jessa, M., Nazar, M., Plaznik, A., Hartmann, S., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (1997) Anxiolytic activity of glycine-B antagonists and partial agonists - No relation to intrinsic activity in the patch clamp. Neuropharmacology 36: 1355-1367. Karcz-Kubicha_1997.pdf

Lazarewicz, J.W., Gadamski, R., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (1997) Protection against post-ischaemic neuronal loss in gerbil hippocampal CA1 by glycine(B) and AMPA antagonists. Journal of Neural Transmission 104: 1249-1254. Lazarewicz_1997.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W., Quack, G., Hartmann, S., Lorenz, B., Wollenburg, C., Baran, L., Przegalinski, E., Kostowski, W., Krzascik, P., Chizh, B. and Headley, P.M. (1997) Novel systemically active antagonists of the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: Electrophysiological, biochemical and behavioral characterization. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 283: 1264-1275. Parsons_1997.pdf

Zajaczkowski, W., Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (1997) Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate NMDA-induced impairment of passive avoidance learning and LTP. Neuropharmacology 36: 961-971. Zajaczkowski_1997b.pdf


Danysz, W. and Parsons, C.G. (1998) Glycine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: Physiological significance and possible therapeutic applications. Pharmacological Reviews 50: 597-664. Danysz_1998.pdf

Danysz, W. and Parsons, C.G. (1998) GlycineB recognition site of NMDA receptors and its antagonists. Amino Acids 14: 205-206. Danysz_1998b.pdf

Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Karcz-Kubicha, M., Schwaier, A., Popik, P., Wedzony, K., Lazarewicz, J. and Quack, G. (1998) GlycineB antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. Previous hopes and present reality. Amino Acids 14: 235-239. Danysz_1998c.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W., Hesselink, M., Hartmann, S., Lorenz, B., Wollenburg, C. and Quack, G. (1998) Modulation of NMDA receptors by glycine - introduction to some basic aspects and recent development. Amino Acids 14: 207-216. Parsons_1998c.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. and Quack, G. (1998) Glutamate in CNS Disorders as a target for drug development: an update. Drug News & Perspectives 11: 523-569. Parsons_1998b.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Hartmann, S. and Spielmanns, P. ( 1998) Budipine is a low affinity, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist: patch clamp studies in cultured striatal, hippocampal, cortical and superior colliculus neurones. Neuropharmacology 37: 719-727. Parsons_1998.pdf

Rammes, G., Swandulla, D., Spielmanns, P. and Parsons, C.G. (1998) Interactions of GYKI 52466 and NBQX with cyclothiazide at AMPA receptors: experiments with outside-out patches and EPSCs in hippocampal neurones. Neuropharmacology 37: 1299-1320. Rammes_1998.pdf

Samnick, S., Ametamey, S., Leenders, K.L., Vontobel, P., Quack, G., Parsons, C.G., Neu, H. and Schubiger, P.A. (1998) Electrophysiological study, biodistribution in mice, and preliminary PET evaluation in a rhesus monkey of 1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-5-methyl-adamantane (18F-MEM): a potential radioligand for mapping the NMDA-receptor complex. Nucl Med Biol 25: 323-30. Samnick_1998.pdf


Ametamey, S.M., Samnick, S., Leenders, K.L., Vontobel, P., Quack, G., Parsons, C.G. and Schubiger, P.A. (1999) Fluorine-18 radiolabelling, biodistribution studies and preliminary pet evaluation of a new memantine derivative for imaging the NMDA receptor. Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research 19: 129-141. Ametamey_1999.pdf

Frankiewicz, T. and Parsons, C.G. (1999) Memantine restores long term potentiation impaired by tonic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation following reduction of Mg2+ in hippocampal slices. Neuropharmacology 38: 1253-1259. Frankiewicz_1999.pdf

Hesselink, M.B., Parsons, C.G., Wollenburg, C. and Danysz, W. (1999) Brain distribution of an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist; comparison to its in vitro potency in electrophysiological studies. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology 360: 144-150. Hesselink_1999d.pdf

Kornhuber, J., Bleich, S., Wiltfang, J., Maler, M. and Parsons, C.G. (1999) Flupirtine shows functional NMDA receptor antagonism by enhancing Mg2+ block via activation of voltage independent potassium channels. Journal of Neural Transmission 106: 857-867. Kornhuber_1999.pdf

Mutschler, E., Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. and Quack, G. (1999) Die Bedeutung von Glutamat bei Erkrankungen des Zentralnervensystems (ZNS) und potentialle therapeutische Anwendungen. Akademie Journal 1: 11-14. Mutschler_1999.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W., Bartmann, A., Spielmanns, P., Frankiewicz, T., Hesselink, M., Eilbacher, B. and Quack, G. (1999) Amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes are novel uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists with strong voltage-dependency and fast blocking kinetics: in vitro and in vivo characterization. Neuropharmacology 38: 85-108. Parsons_1999.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. and Quack, G. (1999) Memantine is a clinically well tolerated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist - a review of preclinical data. Neuropharmacology 38: 735-767. Parsons_1999b.pdf

Rammes, G., Zeilhofer, H.U., Collingridge, G.L., Parsons, C.G. and Swandulla, D. (1999 ) Expression of early hippocampal CA1 LTP does not lead to changes in AMPA-EPSC kinetics or sensitivity to cyclothiazide. Pflugers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 437: 191-196. Rammes_1999.pdf


Dannhardt, G., vonGruchalla, M., Kohl, B.K. and Parsons, C.G. (2000) A novel series of 2-carboxytetrahydroquinolines provides new insights into the eastern region of glycine site NMDA antagonists. Archiv der Pharmazie 333: 267-274. Dannhardt_2000.pdf

Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Möbius, H.J., Stöffler, A. and Quack, G. (2000) Neuroprotective and symptomatological action of memantine relevant for Alzheimer´s disease - an unified glutamatergic hypothesis on the mechanism of action. Neurotoxicity Research 2: 85-97. Danysz_2000_b.pdf

Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Möbius, H.J., Stöffler, A. and Quack, G. (2000) Neuroprotective and symptomatological action of memantine relevant for Alzheimer´s disease - an unified hypothesis on the mechanism of action. In: Strategies for Studying Brain Disorders 5: Neurodegenerative Brain Disorders (Palomo, T., Benninger, R., and Archer, T.). Fundación Cerebro y Mente, Madrid, p. 513-527. Danysz_2000.pdf

Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G. and Quack, G. (2000) NMDA channel blockers: memantine and amino-alkylcyclohexanes. In vivo characterization - II. Amino Acids 19: 167-172. Danysz_2000c.pdf

Frankiewicz, T., Pilc, A. and Parsons, C.G. (2000) Differential effects of NMDA-receptor antagonists on long-term potentiation and hypoxic/hypoglycaemic excitotoxicity in hippocampal slices. Neuropharmacology 39: 631-642. Frankiewicz_2000.pdf

Jirgensons, A., Kauss, V., Kalvinsh, I., Gold, M.R., Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G. and Quack, G. (2000) Synthesis and structure-affinity relationships of 1,3, 5- alkylsubstituted cyclohexylamines binding at NMDA receptor PCP site. Eur J Med Chem 35: 555-565. Jirgensons_2000.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. and Quack, G. (2000) Memantine and the amino-alkyl-cyclohexane MRZ 2/579 are moderate affinity uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists - in vitro characterisation. Amino Acids 19: 157-166. Parsons_2000b.pdf

Sopala, M., Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (2000) Middle cerebral artery occlusion produces secondary, remote impairment in hippocampal plasticity of rats - involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors? Neurosci Lett 281: 143-146. Sopala_2000.pdf


Houghton, A.K., Parsons, C.G. and Headley, P.M. (2001) MRZ 2/579, a fast kinetic NMDA receptor antagonist, delays the development of morphine tolerance in awake rats. Pain 91: 201-207. Houghton_2001.pdf

Jones, M.W., McClean, M., Parsons, C.G. and Headley, P.M. (2001) The in vivo significance of the varied channel blocking properties of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. Neuropharmacology 41: 50-61. Jones_2001.pdf

Parsons, C.G. (2001) NMDA receptors as targets for drug action in neuropathic pain. Eur J Pharmacol 429: 71-8. Parsons_2001.pdf

Parsons C.G. , Danysz W. and Quack G. (2001) Amino-Alkyl-Cyclohexanes: Uncompetitive NMDA Receptor Antagonists with Fast, Voltage-Dependent Blocking Kinetics . In: Excitatory Amino Acids: Ten Years Later (Turski L. , Schoepp D.D. , and Cavalheiro E.A.). IOS Press, p. 21-28. Parsons_2001a.pdf

Rammes, G., Mahal, B., Putzke, J., Parsons, C.G., Spielmanns, P., Pestel, E., Spanagel, R., Zieglgansberger, W. and Schadrack, J. (2001) The anti-craving compound acamprosate acts as a weak NMDA-receptor antagonist, but modulates NMDA-receptor subunit expression similar to memantine and MK-801. Neuropharmacology 40: 749-60. Rammes_2001a.pdf

Rammes, G., Rupprecht, R., Ferrari, U., Zieglgänsberger, W. and Parsons, C.G. (2001) The NMDA receptor channel blockers memantine, MRZ 2/579 and other amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes also antagonise 5-HT3 receptor currents in HEK-293 and N1E-115 cells in a non-competitive manner. Neuroscience Letters 306: 81-84. Rammes_2001b.pdf


Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Jirgensons, A., Kauss, V. and Tillner, J. (2002) Amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes as a novel class of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. Curr. Pharm. Des. 8: 835-843. Danysz_2002b.pdf

Danysz, W. and Möbius, H.J. (2002) Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotection - Therapeutic Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists and Modulators. In: Therapeutic Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists and Modulators (Lodge, D., Danysz, W., and Parsons, C. G.). F.P. Graham Publishing Co., New York, p. 612-636. Danysz_2002d.pdf

Danysz, W. and Parsons, C.G. (2002) Neuroprotective potential of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Neurotox Res 4: 119-26. Danysz_2002.pdf

Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (2002) ALS. In: Therapeutic potential of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and modulators (Lodge, D., Danysz, W., and Parsons, C. G.). F.P. Graham Publishing Co., New York, p. 540-562. Parsons_2002e.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. and Lodge, D. (2002) Preface: Introduction to glutamate receptors , their function and pharmacology. In: Therapeutic potential of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and modulators (Lodge, D., Danysz, W., and Parsons, C. G.). F.P. Graham Publishing Co., New York, p. 1-27. Parsons_2002c.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Stoffler, A. and Winblad, B. (2002) Dementia - Therapeutic Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists and Modulators. In: Therapeutic Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists and Modulators (Lodge, D., Danysz, W., and Parsons, C. G.). F.P. Graham Publishing Co., New York, p. 229-262. Parsons_2002d.pdf

Zieglgänsberger, W., Rammes, G., Spanagel, R. , Danysz, W. and Parsons, C.G. (2002) Mechanism of action of acamprosate focusing on the glutamatergic system. In: Glutamate and addiction (Herman, B. H. et al.). Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, USA, p. 399-407. Zieglgänsberger_2002.pdf


Danysz, W. and Parsons, C.G. (2003) The NMDA receptor antagonist memantine as a symptomatological and neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer’s disease preclinical evidence. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18: S23-S32. Danysz_2003a.pdf

DeBock, F., Kurz, J., Azad, S.C., Parsons, C.G., Hapfelmeier, G., Zieglgänsberger, W. and Rammes, G. (2003) a2-receptor activation inhibits synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala via Gi-protein-mediated modulation of Ca2+- and inwardly-rectifying K+-channels. Eur J Neurosci 17: 1411-24. DeBock_2003.pdf

Eisensamer, B., Rammes, G., Gimpl, G., Shapa, M., Ferrari, U., Hapfelmeier, G., Bondy, B., Parsons, C.G., Gilling, K., Zieglgänsberger, W., Holsboer, F. and Rupprecht, R. (2003) Antidepressants are functional antagonists at the serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor. Molecular Pharmacology 8: 994-1007. Eisensamer_2003.pdf

Löscher, W., Potschka, H., Wlaz, P., Danysz, W. and Parsons, C.G. (2003) Are neuronal nicotinic receptors a target for antiepileptic drug development? Studies in different seizure models in mice and rats. Eur J Pharmacol 466: 99-111. Loscher_2003.pdf

Song, C., Zhang, Y., Parsons, C.G. and Liu, Y.F. (2003) Expression of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors . J. Biol. Chem. 278: 33364-33369. Song_2003.pdf


Frankiewicz, T. and Parsons, C.G. (2004) Chronic memantine does not block 3-nitropropionic acid-induced delayed ischaemic tolerance in rat hippocampal slices ex vivo. Neurotoxicity Research 5: 617-622. Frankiewicz_2004.pdf

Medvedev, I.O., Malyshkin, A.A., Belozertseva, I.V., Sukhotina, I.A., Sevostianova, N.Y., Aliev, K., Zvartau, E.E., Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. and Bespalov, A.Y. (2004) Effects of low-affinity NMDA receptor channel blockers in two rat models of chronic pain. Neuropharmacology 47: 175-83. Medvedev_2004.pdf

Rammes, G., Eisensamer, B., Ferrari, U., Shapa, M., Gimpl, G., Gilling, K., Parsons, C., Riering, K., Hapfelmeier, G., Bondy, B., Zieglgansberger, W., Holsboer, F. and Rupprecht, R. (2004) Antipsychotic drugs antagonize human serotonin type 3 receptor currents in a noncompetitive manner. Mol Psychiatry 9: 846-858. Rammes_2004.pdf


Danysz, W., Kozela, E., Parsons, C.G., Sladek, M., Bauer, T. and Popik, P. (2005) Peripherally acting NMDA receptor/glycine(B) site receptor antagonists inhibit morphine tolerance. Neuropharmacology 48: 360-71. Danysz_2005.pdf

Hofner, G., Hoesl, C.E., Parsons, C., Quack, G. and Wanner, K.T. (2005) NMDA-NR2B subtype selectivity of stereoisomeric 2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-isoquinolyl)ethanol derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 15: 2231-4. Höfner_2005.pdf

Noeske, T., Gutcaits, A., Parsons, C.G. and Weil, T. (2005) Allosteric Modulation of Family 3 GPCRs . QSARs. 1-13. Noeske_2005.pdf

Parsons C.G. , Danysz, W. and Zieglgänsberger, W. (2005) Excitatory Amino Acid Neurotransmission. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology p. 249-303. Parsons_2005.pdf

Patierno, S., Zellalem, W., Ho, A., Parsons, C.G., Lloyd, K.C., Tonini, M. and Sternini, C. (2005) N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors Mediate Endogenous Opioid Release in Enteric Neurons After Abdominal Surgery. Gastroenterology 128: 2009-19. Patierno_2005.pdf

Renner, S., Noeske, T., Parsons, C.G., Schneider, P., Weil, T. and Schneider, G. (2005) New allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) found by ligand-based virtual screening. Chembiochem 6: 1-6. Renner_2005.pdf


Christoph, T., Schiene, K., Englberger, W., Parsons, C.G. and Chizh, B.A. (2006) The antiallodynic effect of NMDA antagonists in neuropathic pain outlasts the duration of the in vivo NMDA antagonism. Neuropharmacology 51: 12-17. Christoph_2006.pdf

Karanian, D.A., Baude, A.S., Brown, Q.B., Parsons, C.G. and Bahr, B.A. (2006) 3-Nitropropionic acid toxicity in hippocampus: Protection through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism. Hippocampus 16: 834-842. Karanian_2006.pdf

Loscher, W., Dekundy, A., Nagel, J., Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G. and Potschka, H. (2006) mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor antagonists lack anticonvulsant efficacy in rodent models of difficult-to-treat partial epilepsy. Neuropharmacology 50: 1006-1015. Loscher_2006.pdf

Noeske, T., Sasse, B.C., Stark, H., Parsons, C.G., Weil, T. and Schneider, G. (2006) Predicting Compound Selectivity by Self-Organizing Maps: Cross-Activities of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists. ChemMedChem 1: 1066-1068. Noeske_2006.pdf

Wenk, G.L., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (2006) Potential role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors as executors of neurodegeneration resulting from diverse insults: focus on memantine. Behav Pharmacol 17: 411-24. Wenk_2006.pdf


Gilling, K.E., Jatzke, C. and Parsons, C.G. (2007) Agonist concentration-dependency of blocking kinetics but not equilibrium block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by memantine. Neuropharmacology 53: 415-420. Gilling_2007b.pdf

Gilling, K., Jatzke, C., Wollenburg, C., Vanejevs, M., Kauss, V., Jirgensons, A. and Parsons, C.G. (2007) A novel class of amino-alkylcyclohexanes as uncompetitive, fast, voltage-dependent, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists - in vitro characterization. J Neural Transm 114: 1529-1537. Gilling_2007c.pdf

Noeske, T., Jirgensons, A., Starchenkovs, I., Renner, S., Jaunzeme, I., Trifanova, D., Hechenberger, M., Bauer, T., Kauss, V., Parsons, C.G., Schneider, G. and Weil, T. (2007) Virtual Screening for Selective Allosteric mGluR1 Antagonists and Structure-Activity Relationship Investigations for Coumarine Derivatives. ChemMedChem 2: 1763-1773. Noeske_2007.pdf

Parsons, C.G. and Gilling, K. (2007) Memantine as an Example of a Fast, Voltage-Dependent, Open Channel N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Blocker. In: Patch Clamp Methods and Protocols Humana, p. 15-36. Gilling_2007.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Stoffler, A. and Danysz, W. (2007) Memantine: a NMDA receptor antagonist that improves memory by restoration of homeostasis in the glutamatergic system - too little activation is bad, too much is even worse. Neuropharmacology 53: 699-723. Parsons_2007.pdf

Plazas, P.V., Savino, J., Kracun, S., Gomez-Casati, M.E., Katz, E., Parsons, C.G., Millar, N.S. and Elgoyhen, A.B. (2007) Inhibition of the a9a10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor by neramexane, an open channel blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 566: 11-19. Plazas_2007.pdf

Renner, S., Hechenberger, M., Noeske, T., Bocker, A., Jatzke, C., Schmuker, M., Parsons, C.G., Weil, T. and Schneider, G. (2007) Searching for drug scaffolds with 3D pharmacophores and neural network ensembles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 46: 5336-5339. Renner_2007.pdf

Szydlowska, K., Kaminska, B., Baude, A., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz, W. (2007) Neuroprotective activity of selective mGlu1 and mGlu5 antagonists in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 554: 18-29. Szydlowska_2007.pdf


Parsons, C.G., Gilling, K.E. and Jatzke, C. (2008) Memantine does not show intracellular block of the NMDA receptor channel. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 587: 99-103. Parsons_2008.pdf

Parsons, C.G., Gillling, K.E. and Jatzke, C. (2008) Blocking kinetics of memantine on NR1a/2A receptors recorded in inside-out and outside-out patches from Xenopus oocytes. J. Neural Transm. 115: 1367-1373. Parsons_2008.pdf

Rammes, G., Ziegelgänsberger, W. and Parsons C.G. (2008) The fraction of activated NMDA receptors during synaptic transmission remains constant in the presence of the glutamate release inhibitor riluzole. J. Neural Transmission, J. Neural Transm. 115: 1119-1126. Rammes_2008.pdf

Rammes, G., Danysz, W,. and Parsons, C.G. (2008) Pharmacodynamics of memantine: an update. Current Neuropharmacology. 6: 55-78. Rammes_2008.pdf

Vanejevs, M., Jatzke, C., Renner, S., Muller, S., Hechenberger, M., Bauer, T., Klochkova, A., Pyatkin, I., Kazyulkin, D., Aksenova, E., Shulepin, S., Timonina, O., Haasis, A., Gutcaits, A., Parsons, C.G., Kauss, V. and Weil, T. (2008) Positive and Negative Modulation of Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. J Med Chem Vanejevs_2008.pdf 


Gilling, K.E., Jatzke, C., Hechenberger, M. and Parsons, C.G. (2009) Potency, voltage-dependency, agonist concentration-dependency, blocking kinetics and partial untrapping of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel blocker memantine at human NMDA (GluN1/GluN2A) receptors.  Neuropharmacology 56: 866-75. Gillling_2009.pdf

Noeske, T., Trifanova, D., Kauss, V., Renner, S., Jatzke, C., Parsons, C.G., Schneider, G. and Weil, T. (2009) Synergism of virtual screening and medicinal chemistry: identification and optimization of allosteric antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Published ahead of print. Noeske_2009.pdf

Teus, M., Jirgensons, A., Dambrova, M., Mezhapuke, R., Parsons, C.G. and Danysz , W. (2009) Identification of GCP II Inhibitors Based on 4-Arylmethyl-3-(4-carboxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyisoxazole Scaffold.  Letters in Drug Design & Discovery 6: 29-32. Teus_2009.pdf


Martinez-Coria, H., Green, K.N., Billings, L.M., Kitazawa, M., Albrecht, M., Rammes, G., Parsons, C.G., Gupta, S., Banerjee, P. and Laferla, F.M. (2010) Memantine Improves Cognition and Reduces Alzheimer's-Like Neuropathology in Transgenic Mice.  Am. J. Pathol. 176: 870-880. Martinez-Coria_2010.pdf

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